Using ToS;DR to classify cloud services offered by SURF – a proof of concept
During our Berlin code sprint, we had the chance to welcome Alexander Blanc and Herman van Dompseler who have been working on a proof of concept based on the Terms of Service; Didn't Read source code to classify services offered by Dutch ISP SURFnet. We are very happy to see our work used in such ways, in the spirit of Free Software, to raise awareness about our rights online! Without further ado: — Hugo
SURF is the initiator of innovation in higher education and research in the Netherlands. SURF connects ICT professionals in networks and collaboration projects in order to exchange knowledge in ICT innovation. SURFnet runs the SURFconext Authentication and Authorisation Infrastructure (AAI) by which (third party) cloud services can be used in a federated way. In most cases, these services are subject to a license negotiated by SURFmarket as intermediary for (higher) education and research institutes.
A SURF specific ToS;DR implementation could be a service we offer to our users (and institutions) to compare these cloud services based on their Terms of Services. To find out, we made a Proof of Concept (PoC). We started out forking the ToS;DR code and deployed it on a virtual machine. We started from scratch and this is what we encountered on our way.
We began reading a ToS from one of our own services and realized that it is very important to get a good grip of the ToS;DR concepts. Especially the three main concepts: services, topics and points.
Let's start with the points, because they are closest to the underlying ToS. Points are actually (subjects in) ToS articles that represent a bad, good or neutral characteristic of the ToS at hand. In the online version of ToS;DR points are provided by the crowd. In our setup we classify ToS’s on points we pick ourselves. To pick the relevant points from a ToS with dozens of articles is not trivial. We tend to focus on the bad points in a ToS, although from a legal perspective describing something bad in a ToS could actually be better than describing nothing at all about a subject. We ended up rereading the ToS several times, but more on that later. Once you pick a point you have to consider the importance of the point. First decide if it is good, bad or neutral, but how good, bad or neutral? Therefore ToS;DR uses a score, from 0-100 for each of the points. We changed this slightly to represent a scale. Bad points were scored between -100 and 0, neutral points are always 0 and good points ranged from 0 to 100:
bad neutral good -100 =========== 0 =========== 100
When analysing the second ToS, we found similar points that could be re-used. We came up with new points but also encountered subjects that were not addressed in the second ToS. This is where the concept of topics comes in. In ToS;DR points are clustered in topics. The topics are defined by the underlying points. Topics are merely used for categorization. We elaborated on these topics by defining them in advance. We decided that every ToS should mention something about each topic we define. For ToS's that do not mention anything about a certain topic we throw a new point in the mix, stating: 'This ToS does not say anything about topic X' and considered this a bad thing with a score of -20. This enhancement made it easier to compare services, because we were now able to classify all topics as well. With this rating on separate topics the classification is more specific.
Just as ToS;DR classifies cloud services freely available to the general public, we wanted to classify services that are offered via the SURF AAI infrastructure to it’s constituency. But how does the classification work? It turned out that the classification of ToS;DR at that time was not automated. So we had to come up with a classification algorithm ourselves. We decided to go for a simple classification. We used our previously mentioned scale for this. We mapped classes on the scale depending on the score. A score between 61 and 100 represents class A, and between 21 and 60 class B etc. Just like this:
- class A: 100 - 61
- class B: 60 - 21
- class C: 20 - -20
- class D: -21 - -60
- class E: -61 - -100
At first the score we used for classification was the average score of all points allotted to the service. Later we lowered the class of services that had more bad points than good points, to reflect the bad tone of a ToS.
After using ToS;DR for a while, adding services, topics and points we realized we needed a different workflow than the original ToS;DR. We have a limited set of services to score, currently around 300, and we consider offering the ToS;DR based classification as a service to our users. Also very important, we need a legal expert to review our interpretation on topics and points in order to prevent us for misinterpreting. It turned out to be very difficult to interpret a ToS correctly without having a legal background.
Where the original ToS;DR concept uses crowd based discussion input to formulate and rate points, in our case we interpret the ToS deciding on points and rating. Instead we give users the opportunity to discuss our interpretation of a point after we publish our classification of a service. We use their comments to update our interpretation whereas ToS;DR fully relies on users to come up with points from a ToS before the classification is published.
For our legal experts to analyse ToS's we needed a kind of management tool to add services, topics and points. They are typically not able to read and write the JSON which is at the base of ToS;DR. We understand from the ToS;DR team they are working on a management interface, but for now we use our own mapping from Excel to JSON. We have three Excel files that are write-able by the legal experts. Once in a while we convert the Excel to JSON files with a couple of scripts and build a new ToS;DR based on the new JSON files for services, topics and points. In these scripts we also included the classification of the services based on the score of the points.
We learned a lot about the ToS's of our connected services by using ToS;DR. The classification of a ToS and the corresponding points enable a good insight into the ToS. The results presented by ToS;DR are much easier to interpret and more compact than the original ToS. We created an internal proof of concept and we are now considering adding more services and publishing our classification to our constituency.
The biggest challenge will be to get all the points out of the ToS's of 300+ services and give them a relevant score, as well as keeping them up to date. The main question that needs to be answered before continuing with this project is: will the expected benefit to our users justify expenses needed to analyse all the ToS's?